Updates from Juli, 2012 Toggle Comment Threads | Pintasan Keyboard

  • arifrohmadi 11:13 pm on July 9, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Concord – Kesesuaian antara Subjek dengan Verba 

    Concord merupakan kesesuaian bentuk antara subjek dengan verba (Subject-Verb Agreement).

    Aturan-aturan dasar dalam Subject-Verb Agreement:

    1. JAMAK

    Diikuti oleh verba jamak bila merupakan:

    • Alat: Scissors, spectacles
    • Pakaian: Shorts, trousers, pyjamas
    • public, people, police, cattle, clergy
    • a number of, ex: a number of people
    • The + adjective, ex: The young need guidance
    • dua subjek yang dihubungkan dengan and, ex: Arif and Joko are friends

     

    2. SINGULAR

    Diikuti oleh verba tunggal bila merupakan:

    • Title, ex: From Zero to Hero is easy to read.
    • Distance, Time, Money (Uncountable noun), ex: five miles is still hard for me
    • The number of, ex: the number of students is sitting on the class
    • Ving, ex: shopping is her favorite’s hobby
    • Each, every, much , ex: Each students has got the workbook
    • Nama pelajaran, ex: mathematics, economics, etc

     

    3. SINGULAR = PLURAL

    singular =  plural bila:

    • Language/names
    • Animal, ex: duck, sheep, deer, fish, salmon, trout, pike, carp, grouse

     

    Pada kata Other, berlaku:

    • Jika other diikuti nomina tunggal, maka verbanya tunggal

    Contoh; There isn’t any other way to do

    • Jika other diikuti nomina jamak, maka verbanya jamak

    Contoh: There aren’t any other ways to do

     

    Referensi lain: http://linggris.wordpress.com

     
  • arifrohmadi 5:17 am on June 11, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Bentuk Lain Relative Pronouns 

    Bentuk I :

    1. The hat is worn

    2. The hat who was worn

    3. The hat who have been

        semua kalimat diatas dapat menjadi -> the hat worn by

     

    Bentuk II :

    1. The girl who wears

    2. The girl who is wearing

    3. The girl who has worn

    4. The girl who was wearing

    5. The girl who had worn

        semua kalimat diatas dapat menjadi –> the girl wearing

     
  • arifrohmadi 5:00 am on June 11, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Conditional Sentences (Kalimat Pengandaian) 

    Conditional Sentences terdiri dari 2 bagian, yaitu subordinate clause (if-clause) yang merupakan pernyataan syarat, dan main clause yang merupakan akibat terpenuhi atau tidaknya syarat yang terkandung dalam subordinate clause

    Ada 3 jenis Conditional Sentences, yaitu:

    1. Type I (kemungkinan besar terjadi dan sangat dimungkinkan kondisi terpenuhi)

    Formula : if + Simple Present, will Future

    Contoh: if I have much money, I will buy a car

    2. Type II (kemungkinan kecil terjadi karena sangat tidak memungkinkan kondisi terpenuhi)

    Formula: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (would+infinitive)

    Contoh: if I found her address, I would send her an invitation

    3. Type III (Tidak mungkin kondisi terpenuhi, karena mengacu pada masa lalu)

    Formula: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (would + have + Past Participle)

    Contoh: if they had trained harder the weeks before, Our team would have been in better form

     

    nb:

    urutan kalimat dapat dibalik ( subordinate clause, main clause atau main clause subordinate clause)

    contoh:

    if she sings a song, I will listen atau

    I will listen if she sings a song.

     

    Referensi-
    http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences
    http://ginesharastika.blogspot.com/2012/04/conditional-sentences.html

     
  • arifrohmadi 10:44 am on May 23, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Bermain untuk Perkaya Kosakata 

    Bermain untuk perkaya kosakata bahasa inggris.. Lewat permainan tentunya lebih menarik dan tidak membosankan..

    Check this out 🙂

    http://wordsquared.com

     
  • arifrohmadi 9:57 am on May 19, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Multiple Adjective 

    Untuk membentuk sebuah kalimat dengan banyak adjective, dalam bahasa inggris perlu memperhatikan urutan. Adapun urutannya sebagai berikut:

    1. Determiner and Quantities: the, a ,an, that, those, this, these, their, her, five, many, much, dll

    2. Opinion : beautiful, handsome, pretty, ugly, smart, cheap, dll

    3. Size : big, fat, small, large, tall, thin, dll

    4. Age ; old, young, a year, a week, new, dll

    5. Shape : square, triangle, circle, dl

    6. Color : green, blue, red, dll

    7. Origin : American, English, Asian, European, Chinese, dll

    8. Material : cotton, plastic, silicon, gold, glass, wood, dll

    9. Purpose (Adjective yang biasanya diakhiri –ing) : sleeping bag, frying pan, swinging door

    (untuk mempermudah mengingat bisa disingkat DOSASCOMP = Determiner-Opinion-Size-Age-Shape-Color-Origin-Material-Purpose)
    Kemudian diikuti dengan noun atau pronoun.

    Contoh:

    The first strong big young white Indian tiger

    a beautiful blue sailing boat

    a big red plastic hat

    More Exercises: http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/adjord1.htm

     
  • arifrohmadi 8:06 am on May 18, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Relative Pronouns 

    Relative Pronouns (Kata ganti) –> that, who, whom, whose, which, of which, where

    1. Who: Kata ganti orang posisi subjek

    contoh

    The girl is my sister. She wears a red hat.

    The girl who wears a red hat is my sister.

    2. Whom: Kata ganti orang posisi objek

    contoh

    The girl is beautiful. I met her yesterday

    The girl whom I met yesterday is beautiful.

    3. Whose: Kata ganti kepemilikan seseorang

    contoh

    That grandmother loves a boy. His car is big

    That grandmother loves a boy whose car is big

    4. Which: Kata ganti benda/sesuatu
    contoh

    The house is big. It has many rooms

    The house which has many rooms is big

    5. of which: Kata ganti kepemilikan benda/sesuatu
    contoh

    The car is luxury. its door made from steel

    The car of which door made from steel is luxury.

    6. That: Kata ganti sesuatu
    contoh

    a thing walks along the street. It is extremely ugly

    a thing that is extremely ugly walks along the street

    7. Where

    contoh

    a country where he lives is Afghanistan

     

    nb:

    of which = bagian

    in which = didalamnya

    from which = daripadanya

     

    Exercises: (Translate into English)

    1. Laki-laki yang Arum cintai mencintai gadis yang kaosnya biru

    2. Buku yang didalamnya kamu dapat menemukan gambar naga harus disimpan di meja yang kaki-kakinya di cat merah

    3. Gadis yang memakai celana panjang pink itu jatuh cinta pada laki-laki yang rambutnya seperti rambut kera

     
  • arifrohmadi 7:32 am on May 18, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Degree of Comparison [for Adverb] 

    Bila tingkat perbandingan (Degree of Comparison) pada Adjective dibedakan 3 macam, di Adverb juga ada 3 macam:

    1. Positive

    Membandingkan 2 hal yang setara.

    Formula:

    as ……….. as (‘……… ‘ diisi adverb)

    Contoh: She works as slowly as snail

    2. Comparative

    Membandingkan 2 hal dimana, yang satu lebih dari yang lain.

    Formula:

    more …… than (‘………’ diisi adverb)

    Contoh:
    He run more fast than the ant
    The girl looks more charming than the man

    3. Superlative

    Merupakan sesuatu yang paling ….. diantara yang lainnya

    Formula:

    most …… (‘………’ diisi adverb)

    Contoh:

    She dances most beautifully

    She runs fastest among the girls

     

    Kata sifat + ly = adverb, namun ada beberapa kata yang tidak perlu ditambah ly seperti: hard, fast, far, near, dll

    Adverb selain menerangkan Verb dapat juga untuk menerangkan Adjective

    Contoh:

    She is terribly bad

    She is extremely ugly

    He is really fat

    untuk kata yang berhubungan dengan indera seperti ‘seem, look, smell, sound’ dianggap seperti to be (bukan dianggap sebagai kata kerja)

    Contoh : sound great, She seems beautiful, He looks handsome

    More Exercises:
    http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/adjectives_adverbs/adjective_adverb.htm

     
  • arifrohmadi 12:06 am on May 10, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Degree of Comparison [for Adjective] 

    Degree of comparison describes the relational value of one thing with something in another clause of a sentence.
    There are three types of Degree of Comparison:

    1. Positive 
       it doesn’t relate to any superior or inferior qualities of other things
    Formula:
    as…….as (…. is filled with adj)
    Example: He is as smart as Einstein

    2. Comparative
       it denotes a greater amount of a quality relative to something else
    Formula:
    – er ……. than (one syllable)
    – more……than (two syllable or more)
    Example:
    the cat is bigger than the mouse
    the Antartica’s climate is more extreme than Indonesia’s climate

    3. Superlative
       denotes the most …. things
    Formula:
    – the….est (one syllable)
    – the most ….. (two syllable or more)
    Example:
    The earth is the most beautiful planet in the solar system

    vocabularies (adjective)

    adjective mean
    ambitious ambisius
    ancient kuno
    attractive menarik
    brave berani
    charm menawan
    comfortable nyaman
    curious ingin tahu
    dangerous berbahaya
    diligent rajin
    disposable dapat dibuang
    easy going santai
    excellent baik sekali
    faithful setia
    gorgeous sangat indah
    graceful anggun
    hazard bahaya
    impossible mustahil
    introvert orang yang tertutup
    invincible tak terkalahkan
    invisible tak terlihat
    mature dewasa
    memorable kenangan
    natural alami
    perfect sempurna
    polite sopan
    precious berharga
    pure murni
    removable dapat dipindahkan
    ridiculous menggelikan
    rough kasar
    scary mengerikan
    significant penting
    spooky seram
    tidy rapi
    tough sulit
    tremendous hebat sekali
    ultimate terakhir
    urgent mendesak
    worst terburuk
     
  • arifrohmadi 10:14 pm on May 6, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Final ED of Regular Verbs 

    1. Ed is pronounced as [t] after unvoiced consonant (p,t,k,ch,f,th,s,sh) except [t]

    – dressed          – liked           – thanked

    – decreased      – jumped       – walked

    2. Ed is pronounced as [d] after voiced consonant or vowel except [d]

    – lived               – mailed        – cleaned

    – followed         – dialed         – explained

    3. Ed is pronounced as [ed] after [t] or [d]

    – wanted           – excited      – added

    – interested      – ended        – handed

     

    source: Expert of English

     
  • arifrohmadi 9:30 am on May 5, 2012 Permalink | Balas  

    Active and Passive Voice 

    image

     
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